Mengenal Debian Linux

Debian Linux

Debian adalah sistem operasi berbasis open source yang dikembangkan secara terbuka oleh sukarelawan yang ingin mengembangkannya. Sistem operasi ini adalah gabungan dari perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan dengan lisensi GNU, dan utamanya menggunakan kernel linux, sehingga disebut dengan GNU/Linux. Debian pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh Ian Murdock,  ia adalah seorang mahasiswa dari Universitas Perdue AS, pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1993. Nama Debian berasal dari singkatan nama Ian Murdock dengan mantan kekasihnya Debra Lyyn,  dan kemudian disingkat menjadi “Debian”.

Debian banyak dijadikan sebagai Distro panutan atau Base Distro dari banyak Distro turunannya, contoh turunan Debian yang paling terkenal adalah Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Kali Linux dan masih banyak lagi.

Debian juga compatible dengan memiliki banyak Varian Desktop Environment, seperti Gnome, Mate, KDE, XFCE, LXDE, dll. Sehingga Debian cocok dengan berbagai macam scenario penggunaan User. Contohnya apabila User memiliki Laptop yang berspesifikasi rendah maka dapat menggunakan XFCE. Sedangkan apabila User memiliki Laptop yang cukup mumpuni maka dapat menggunakan Gnome.

Untuk versi Debian Stable yang dirilis saat artikel ini di Upload adalah Versi Debian 9.8 Stretch. Berikut ini adalah beberapa Versi Debian yang sudah dirilis.

Fungsi Linux Debian

Fungsi Debian yaitu sebagai server jaringan atau mengatur proses jaringan seperti router dan repeater. Selain itu,  OS ini juga terkenal dengan kestabilannya di banding dengan distro linux lain,  debian lebih stabil. Kita bisa memakai atau memaksimalkannya dengan PC atau laptop yang spesifikasinya low/rendah. OS Debian juga berfungsi untuk troubleshooting yang berarti dapat mendeteksi kesalahan yang ada pada software, hardware maupun pada network/jaringan.

Kelebihan Linux Debian

  • Dikenal super stabil
  • Tidak mudah mengalami hang,  meskipun telah menjalankan program terus-menerus dalam kurun waktu lama yaitu 1 bulan, tanpa melakukakn restart.
  • Sistem pemeliharaan paket berbasis program “APT” yang canggih.
  • Sistem hanya di-reboot setelah mengganti kernel, mati listrik atau ganti perangkat keras.
  • Non komersial,  karena dihasilkan oleh para sukarelawan dari seluruh dunia yabg saling bekerja sama.
  • Free software, dapat mengambil atau menyalin sorce program Linux tanpa dikenai biaya dan dapat memperbanyak,memodifikasi, serta mrnyebarluasjan secara bebas.
  • Open source, semua listing progrqm dari source code sistem operadu tersebut dapat dilihat dan dimodifikasi tanpa ada larangan.
  • Linux debian adalah sistem operasinCross Platform yang dapat dijalankan pada hampir semua jenis/tipe komputer yang ada saat ini.

Kekurangan Linux Debian

  • Siklus pengembangab distro sangat lambat.
  • Para pengembang tidak mengenal istilah “Dead Line” sehingga jangka waktu antar rilis dapat bertahun-tahun.
  • Versi software yang dipakai biasanya lebih tua dari yang sudah rilis saat ini.
  • Sangat sulit memasukkan software versi terbaru ke dalam distronya, sebelum benar-benar teruji keamanan dan kestabilannya.
  • Sulit dikonfigurasi pada saat instal pertama kali.
  • Perlu repositori besar (40-60 GB).

Directory Pada Debian

  • Root adalah Directory utama pada Linux.
  • Boot yaitu directory yang berisi file boot loader, termasuk Grub dan LiLO, kernel, initrd, config dan system, serta map.
  • Sys yaitu verisi kernel, firmware dan file yang berhubungan dengan sistem.
  • Sbin yautu berisi binari sistem esensial dan peralatan sistem administrasi penting bagi sistem operasi dan kinerjanya.
  • Bin yaitu berisi binari penting bagi epngguna dan utilitasnya yang diperlukan dalam pengguna sendiri.
  • Lib yaitu berisi file-file pustaka untuk semua binari yang berada di dalam directory /sbin dan /bin.
  • Dev yaitu berisi file sistem esensial dan driver-driver.
  • Etc yaitu berisi file konfigirasi sitem esensial termasuk /etc /hosts, /etc /resolve. Conf, nsswitch. Conf dan file konfigurasu jaringan.
  • Home yaitu berisi dile pengguna, pengaturan pengguna, profil ,dll.
  • Media yaitu untuk media penyimpanan bergerak seperti CD-ROM, USB, Floppy, dll.
  • Mnt yaitu untuk file system sementara.
  • Opt yaitu untuk perangkat lunak dari pihak ketiga dan bukan merupakan utilitas dari proyek gnu seperti Java/VirtualBox.
  • Usr yaitu berisi file yang merupakan utilitas dan aplikasi tertentu dan juga berisi dokumentasi juga.
  • Var yaitu sebagai file system pada partisi yang terpisah di baeah root dimana semua konten variable seperti logs, file spool untuk printer, crontab, mail, proses yang dilakukan, file lock, dll.
  • Tmp yaitu sebuah file system sememtara yang mrnyimpan file-file sementara dan akan di hapus ketika sistem di reboot (dijalankan kembali).

Penulis : Intan Nur Ani

Editor : Tio Jevero

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